1Naomi Schor, "Feminist and Gender Studies" in Joseph Gibaldi,
Introduction to Scholarship in modern languages and Litera-
tures, New York: Modern Language Association, 1992.
2Lee Patterson, "On the margin: postmodernism, ironic history,
and medieval studies," Speculum, 65 (1990), 87-108.
3Cite Lee Patterson, Negotiating the Past. For a more
recent example see the introduction to the special issue of
Paragraph 13:2 (1990) on gender and medieval studies which
proceeds from the assumption of radical difference between the
study of the middle ages and that of any more modern period.
4David Aers has recently commented in another connection on the
curious convergence of right and left readings of the Middle
Ages. See "A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists; or, Reflec-
tions on Literary Critics Writing the `History of the Subject'"
in Culture and History, 1350-1600: Essays on English Com-
munities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (Detroit:
Wayne State University Press, 1992), 177-203.
5See "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Hu-
manities" in The Structuralist Controversy.
6The following material is based on the evidence cited by
Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences, Huizinga, "The
Problem of the Renaissance" in Men and Ideas, Ferguson,
Kristeller, Mommsen, and Hans Baron.
7Cite the edition of Eugenio Garin.
9Honore de Balzac, La Comedie Humaine. Etude de moeurs: Scenes
de la vie privee. Edited by Marcel Bouteron, vol. 1
Bibliotheque de la Pleiade (Paris: Gallimard, 1951), 78-79.
10Patterson, Negotiating the Past puts it this way for
England. See also Kevin Morris, The Image of the Middle Ages
in Romantic and Victorian Literature (London; Dover, NH:
Croom Helm, c1984); Janine Rosalind Dakyns, Middle Ages in
French Literature 1851-1900 (London: Oxford University Press,
1973); Christoph Schmid, Die Mittelalterrezeption des 18.
Jahrhunderts zwischen Aufklarung und Romantik Europaische
Hochschulschriften. Reihe I, Deutsche Literatur und Germanistik,
278 (Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979).
11Thinking primarily of the origins of many of modernity's in-
stitutions and cultural features in the time period of the Middle
Ages, Aers, "Whisper," refers to this exclusion of medieval his-
tory from modernity as a "systematic amnesia" (179-181).
12Derek Pearsall thus describes the "historical motives" of the
exegetical critics: "deeply disturbed by certain developments in
modern society, particularly those that tended towards moral
relativism, the proponents of the historical criticism had no
hesitation in setting up their interpretation of the Middle Ages
not merely as historically correct, but as a model of a superior
society and culture, suitable for the correction of a depraved
age, and he attributes its powerful influence in American
medieval studies of the time to "the seeking of an expression in
the Middle Ages of traditional American values of domestic and
social hierarchy, prompted by shock at the threat to those
values." Pearsall connects this impulse to the "vogue among
Catholic apologists" for scholastic philosphy. The quotation is
from Pearsall, "Chaucer's Poetry and its modern commentators" in
Aers, ed. Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology, and His-
tory (Brighton: Harvester, 1986), 138-139.
13Jean Howard, "The New Historicism in Renaissance Studies,"
English Literary Renaissance 16 (1986), 13-43.